More and more people communicate via messaging apps, as phone calls are seen as old-fashioned, and email can be too complicated. Messaging has the advantage of being more conversational than email, and more immediate.
Unlike in the early days of messaging, such as SMS and AIM, many of today’s messaging apps are secure, with end-to-end encryption protecting your conversations. Messaging apps can be a great way to send sensitive information to others, even to send passwords or other user credentials.
Here are six secure messaging apps you can use, on Mac, iPhone, and iPad, as well as on other platforms.
Compatibility: macOS, iOS, iPadOS, watchOS
Offered by Apple, iMessage has been available on iOS since 2011, OS X / macOS since 2012, and watchOS since 2015. It is by far the most convenient way to securely send messages for users of Apple devices. Using end-to-end encryption by default, it is very secure. Only you and the person you’re messaging can get to the contents of an iMessage conversation. More on iMessage security can be found in this Apple Platform Security document.
The platform is called iMessage, and the apps are called Messages. Setting it up and using very easy. Sign into your device with your Apple ID, or create a new one, and you’re good to go. There aren’t many settings you can adjust. You can choose whether you want to use Messages in the Cloud, so your iMessages sync across your devices. You can choose which phone numbers and email addresses people can use to contact you. And you can enable or disable read reciepts. On iOS, you can enable or disable the sending of read receipts, set a low quality image mode and set text message forwarding, so SMSs sent to your iPhone can be forwarded to your other devices. There are a few other settings for iOS and iPadOS, and if you have an Apple Watch, you can choose whether dictated messages are sent as text or audio, and set some default replies that you can tap on the screen of your watch.
Compatibility: macOS, iOS, iPadOS, Android, Windows, Linux
Signal is most well known for its endorsement by Edward Snowden, who says, "I use Signal every day." Signal uses end-to-end encryption to keep your communications private and secure, including private messaging and private calling, and the Signal protocol is becoming a standard in messaging services.
The setup and use of Signal is very straightforward. Even if you only end up using the iOS version of Signal, its security alone might make it worth it for you. You can sync Signal messages across devices, on an iPhone, iPad, or Mac, as well as Windows devices.
Compatibility: macOS, iOS, iPadOS, Android, Windows, Linux
Telegram is very easy to use and on all platforms, and it offers plenty of settings to set it up how you like it. Two-Step verification, password protection for the client, and various settings to customize the look and feel of the chat are a few examples why Telegram is a great messaging app option.
Chat encryption is not enabled by default, so if you use Telegram make sure to initiate "Secret Chats" with your friends. Also, the encryption that is used, once enabled, is based on the MTProto 2.0 mobile protocol, but Telegram has been broadly criticized for a number of reasons.
Compatibility: iPhone, Android, and Select phones running KaiOS 2.5.1 or newer
WhatsApp, which was acquired by Facebook in 2014, started offering end-to-end encryption in mid-2016 and uses the Signal protocol. In spite of its ownership by Facebook, for whom privacy is not a key features, WhatsApp can be considered a secure messaging app. Your communications are encrypted, so only you and the recipient can see them.
While WhatsApp is not widely used in the United States or Europe, it is the predominant mobile platform for communication, commerce, and more in India, where it may reach 500 million users soon.
While WhatsApp is available for macOS, the Mac version is not really a stand-alone app. Your phone must be on the same wi-fi network, and the macOS version will not work if your phone is not available.
Cost: $2.99 one-off app purchase
Compatibility: iPhone, iPad, Android, web
Threema is an anonymous encrypted messaging platform. Threema does not link your account to your phone’s SIM card, but to a Threema ID which is generated when you sign up. You can use Threema with an iPhone, iPad, or a limited web version.
Unlike the others mentioned above, Threema isn’t free; a one-time purchase of the Threema apps ($2.99) gives you access to the service. Because of this, not a lot of people use Threema, but if you have a small group that wants secure, anonymous messaging, Threema might be for you. The company also offers plans for businesses and organizations.
There are a few other secure messaging services, but many of them present issues, such as the reliability of their encryption, how they handle user data, and their owners. Here’s a comparison of a number of apps and their features.
Messaging and email offer different advantages and disadvantages. You may also want to use secure email, and you can read our examination of three free secure email services that protect your data and privacy.
In addition to using a secure messaging app, you should use an anti-virus and two-way firewall solution on your Mac to make sure malware and key loggers can’t monitor your chats. Furthermore, in the event your Mac is lost or stolen, the use of disk encryption and a strong login password can prevent access to your communications and other data. On iOS, use a 6-digit passcode and TouchID. (Apple’s iOS uses full storage encryption by default.) Additionally, you may want to use a VPN if the network or service provider are not trusted.
Using messaging, or any form of online communications, is not as worry-free as it once was. However, given the improvements in security, there is much to be said for these apps. By using secure, encrypted messaging apps, you can carry on communicating with friends, family, and colleagues, knowing that your conversations remain private.
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